Alexander The Great Essays. The Great Commander

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My essay is about Alexander III of Macedon. In antiquity, he was one of the greatest generals and statesmen.  It is obvious that he has the nickname “the Great” from ancient times until now not for nothing.

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The feature of Alexander the Great as a ruler was that he took the traditions and beliefs of the occupied territories and did not attempt to impose his culture. Such a policy has prevented a surge of revolts of the conquered territories, but every year there were more and more aroused discontent among the countrymen. The same system will be later applied by the Roman emperors.

Early years

Alexander the Great was born in the autumn of 356 BC in the Ancient capital of Macedonia – Pella. The boy grew up in a mixed environment: he genuinely admired valor of his father who was leading an endless war with the Greeks but felt a personal dislike for him because he was under the influence of his mother, who set son against her husband. The study of Alexander at an early age didn’t take place at home, and according to the established tradition he lived with relatives while his teaching. He was educated by the best minds of the time – Lysimachus and Aristotle. Alexander from early ages showed qualities such as ambition, stubbornness and determination. On the other hand, he was completely indifferent to physical pleasure, limiting oneself in food and for a long time showed no interest in the opposite sex. Already at the age of 16 he tried on the role of the King, and later of Commander. By the way, if you love history – then in our website you can find the essay on Julius Caesar. He is also very famous historical person.

The rise to power

After the King of Macedonia died in 336 BC, Alexander was proclaimed as the ruler. The first action of Alexander the Great was the abolition of taxes, the punishment of the enemies of the father, proof of the union with Greece. After the uprising in Greece, Alexander the Great began to consider war with Persia. Then there followed military actions in alliance with the Greeks and French against the Persians. In the battle of Troy, a nearby settlement opened its gates to the Great commander. Soon he conquered almost all of Asia Minor, and then Egypt. There Macedon founded Alexandria. From that time Alexander got the fame of the greatest military leader and conqueror.

The King of Asia

In 331 BC there is occurred the following a major battle with the Persians at Gaugamela, where the Persians were defeated. Alexander conquered Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis.

In 329 BC, when king Darius was killed, Alexander became the ruler of the Persian Empire. Becoming the King of Asia he had been repeatedly exposed by emerging conspiracies.

In 329 – 327 BC he fought in Central Asia – Sogdiana, Bactria. Alexander in those years won a victory over the Scythians, married a Bactrian Princess Roxana and went on a trip to India. He managed to occupy a few tribes and to conquer the territory of present Pakistan. But after crossing the Indus River, the exhausted army went on strike and refused to move on. Alexander was forced to deploy troops back after a triumphant 10-year procession into the Asian part of the Eurasian continent.

The commander returned home in the summer of 325 BC. The period of wars was over. The King took control of the conquered lands. He conducted several reforms, most of them were military.

Personal life

Generally, in the harem of Alexander the Great were about 360 concubines. Campaspe was the most famous among them. She was his mistress for 2 years starting from the year 336, and Barsine who was 7 years older than Alexander and she became the mother of his bastard son Hercules.

Also, it is known that he had a relationship with the Queen of the Amazons Thalestris and the Indian Princess Cleofis.

Alexander had three spouses. The first was a Bactrian Princess Roxana. They married when she was only 14 years old. They married in 327. She gave birth to the only formally recognized child of Alexander. After 3 years the King married at the same time the Persian Princess Statira who was the daughter of King Darius and Parisatide – a daughter of King Artaxerxes III. Both of these additional marriages were made solely for political reasons. However, this did not prevent the first wife Roxana to be inflamed with jealousy and she killed Statira on this basis immediately after the death of her husband.

Overall, Alexander the Great had quite progressive views for his time on relationships with women, who was highly respected and he considered them almost equal to men, even though his teacher Aristotle insisted on the secondary role of women.

Death

In the winter of 323 BC, Alexander begins to plan new campaigns against the Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. Also, he wanted to invade the Carthage. But in less than a week before the enterprise started, the Great commander became seriously sick presumably with malaria. Although, there are exist versions about the poisoning of Alexander. For several months he could not get out of bed at his home in Babylon. From the beginning of June, he could not speak and caught a severe fever, which lasted 10 days. On June 10, 323 BC, the Great King and Commander Alexander the Great died. He was only 33 years old. After Alexander’s death, his great Empire fell apart and the war for power among his generals started.